retting of fibres is done by

It is now possible to trace all the work steps and associated tools used in the Middle Ages. Answer: Jute plants are cut at the flowering stage when plants are 8-10 feet high. Facebook Group: EA Several methods of removing seeds have survived in recorded history. For my experiments I have grown fibre flax. (Dewilde, 1999, p.90; Dr. Simonyi, Erika, Hungary National Museum: “The iron comb was found in the 1950' by István Méri at a medieval village (Tiszalök-Rázom).”). On the fresco, the hemp is broken by hand, which seems to be both difficult and ineffective. So far I have only worked on small amounts of hemp, but the process works well even though it takes longer. Retting is the main challenge faced during the processing of bast plants for the production of long fibre. For water retting the flax bundles are completely immersed in ponds, rivers or other bodies of waters. In order to achieve an even ret, the flax must either be laid so thin that the ground can still be seen, or if laid thicker must be turned from time to time. Becker, B.D., 1984. The retted fibres, being aggregates of elongated cells are still 9. Kein Flachs - Eine Flachsbreche und andere seltene Holzfunde aus Neu Pankow. Retting is a process employing the action of micro-organisms and moisture on plants to dissolve or rot away much of the cellular tissues and pectins surrounding bast-fibre bundles, and so facilitating separation of the fibre from the stem. This is only a short overview on flax fibre extraction in the Middle Ages. But it is longer and is more dependent on the weather. • The fibre quality is improved at least by 2 grades (from TD6 to TD4). Field retting is an industrial process for extracting valuable bast fibres from hemp. Methods of retting nettle fibres. Retting is carried out to increase the mechanical properties of natural fiber, such as banana pseudo-stem fiber . Retting, process employing the action of bacteria and moisture on plants to dissolve or rot away much of the cellular tissues and gummy substances surrounding bast-fibre bundles, thus facilitating separation of the fibre from the stem. Water retting seemed to take less time and the fibres were brighter and more uniform, than those achieved with dew retting. Cotton is also used to make some artificial fibres like rayon. 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It is the fastest method and easiest on the flax stems. Preparation of yarn from fibres by spinning. Weibsbilder al Fresco, Konstanz. 252-266. LinkedIn Group: EA Fiber tenacity tests indicated that the extractive removal of pectin from pseudo-stem fiber through retting did not cause any significant change in the tenacity of the fiber except when over-retting had begun. Klebs, L., 1915. The State Museum in Braunschweig possesses a scutching sword, dated to the 13th century, that was found in downtown Braunschweig/ Germany. After hand decortication the fibres were then knotted, twined and woven into fabric. Haarnagel, W., 1979. If the temperature is too high the fibre will be damaged, which is why artificial drying was not always used. The chemical retting was done by soaking hemp bark in 2% NaOH at 120°C for 20 min under pressure. The flax fibers are held together in the stems by woody matters and cellular tissue and Retting is a fermentation process that frees the fibers from these materials. The fibrous stem after retting has to be mechanically processed to extract of fibre of good quality. Retting If hemp or flax (linen) fibers are to be used in textiles and other high-quality applications, the bast fibers must be separated from the rest of the stalk. Retting of fibres is caused by [JIPMER 1987] A) Bacillus B) Clostridium C) Nitrobacter D) Rhizobium Ask for details ; Follow Report by Sundarallu563 05.01.2018 Log in to add a comment Answers CaptainBrainly Genius; HEYA!!! Die mittelhochdeutschen Lieder vom Flachsschwingen. Die wirtschaftliche Bedeutung der Flachspflanze. Vom Flachs zum Leinengarn. Pectin, while often low in amounts, is strategically located and binds cell walls within plants . In addition, my first attempt at dew retting was in October 2014 in Northern Germany, when it was probably already too cold with daytime temperatures around 16-18 degrees. Ciba-Rundschau Nr. Using this method, the flax could be extracted more easily from the bast. Removing the leaves and flowers reduces the smell as they make a slimy mass when they rot. (e) Silk fibre is obtained from the stem of a plant. A similar tool, however, with a grooved underside for breaking the stems, is depicted in the 16th century, for example by the Flemish illuminator Simon Bening (Hansen, 1984, p.147). In the retting process the pectin, the so-called vegetable glue that surrounds the fibres, is dissolved by either bacteria (water retting) or by fungus (dew retting). Handloom: It is a cloth weaving machine which is manually operated. • The net income is increased by at least Rs. Save. Reutter, R., 1979. Chr.). It can easily be blended with other fibres. A., 1989. (iii) Coir is obtained from fruits of Kapok tree. Science. However she has the flax simply lying on her thighs and a scutching knife in her hands. Initially the stems are worked with a wooden club or mallet, to break the woody parts of the outer hull and core. Clothes protect our body from extreme weather conditions, like heat, cold, rain, etc. The plants are now tied into small bundles. Bacteria multiply and break down the flax. The body of the club was mostly made from apple, walnut or ash (Dewilde, 1999, pp.81-82; Scheuermeier, 1956, p.233). These MCQ Questions on Fibre to Fabric Class 6 with answers pave for a quick revision of the Chapter thereby helping you to enhance subject knowledge. One woman is shown smoothing and has clearly visible a piece of leather placed on her thighs and a smoothing knife. Flax in Flanders throughout the centuries. (iv) The process of removing hair from the sheep is called shearing. Inside the plant, flax fibres are arranged in a circle around the central core of the stem. The fibres were pulled off the stem by hand, starting at the root and the bast was removed from each stem individually (Gerig, 1913, p.40). Pictures by Alfred Glokendon from 1526 depict scutching. If however the flax is left too long, the cell walls of the fibres are damaged. Depending on the weather, dew retting takes approximately three to five weeks. It is used in the production of fibre from plant materials such as flax and hemp stalks and coir from coconut husks. I used a large water tub for my experiments. Edit. Der Flachs, seine Kultur und Verarbeitung. Explain how fibres are obtained from the jute plants. (i) Jute fibre is obtained from the stem of jute plants. Die Aufbereitung von Flachs und Hanf im Spiegel behördlicher Maßnahmen 1463 – 1882. The hot and dry month of August is perfect for drying the flax after the harvest and for dew retting. Die Reliefs des alten Reiches (2980 – 2475 . The simplest recorded method was to beat the bundles of flax against a wall to remove all the seed vessels (Hagen and Tödter, 1985, pp.25-26). Berthold, J., 1999. The water tends to smell very bad and is poisonous to most of crops, humans and animals (Dambroth and Seehuber, 1988, p.83; Harzheim, 1989, p.20). After retting, the flax is dried again. Water retting though has the advantage of taking 7-10 days, depending on the temperature of the water and the amount of lime in it. This causes a large amount of the woody outer hull to drop off. Cotton is useful to make bed sheets, curtains, upholstery, etc. Bäuerliche und handwerkliche Arbeitsgeräte in Westfalen, Aschendorf. The retting breaks down the pectin that holds the fibers to the core. Traditionally this has been done in the same way as Flax and Hemp, i.e. In terms of yield, this should be about 10-15% of weight of the dried plant left as long fibres (Dambroth and Seehuber, 1988, p.87; Schilling, 1935, p.33; Flad, 1984, p.24). When the V-track interlocks with the groove, the flax stems are broken both across their width and length. Spinning: The process of making yarn from fibres is called spinning. Schmitz, G., 1975. By retting, part of it is removed in order to free the fiber. 2, Bern. Körber-Grohne, U., 1987. ATM said the development team is working to increase capacity of the machine, which bypasses the retting of hemp stalks in water, and can also strip away fiber from nettle and linen plants when adjusted. Volkskunde, Veröffentlichungen des Braunschweiger Landesmuseums, 43, Braunschweig. On a large scale, spinning is done with the help of machines. It is done for jute only because unlike other fibres it is sticked to the stem of the plant through natural glue. Heat setting. The most notable fact is that the devices used in non-industrial fibre extraction remained essentially unchanged over many centuries, which indicates that these early techniques had proven themselves to be optimal. In lab-scale, the fibres are isolated with hand peeling. Q. It is used to produce cloth on large scale in cloth producing industries. The water retting is done for a period of 5 days reducing the non fibrous content in PALF by about 25% and the resultant fibre is found to have a linear density of 2.26 tex and an average linear density of about 3.8 tex after microbiological retting. After hackling, washing and drying (in the shade) the fibres are loosened manually and cleaned. (ii) Black soil is most suitable for growing cotton plants. Flax (summer flax) is an annual plant usually sown in mid-April when there are the best conditions for growing with sufficient rainfall. Retting of Jute separates the outer stem from the inner stem and the outer stem is individualised to form a fibre. Powerloom: It is a medium-sized weaving machine that run on power supply. Ravensburg. Today we distinguish two types of flax, for the extraction of linseed and for the extraction of fibre. Cramer, T., 1998. During smoothing, the fibres are not only aligned but also smoothed with very fine silky fibres produced (Fasse, 1989, p.37). during this retting period is done by ... commonly used flax process of decortication allows the mechanical extraction of fibre from plant stems without prior retting. The fineness depends an variety of pineapple and prosperity of the leave. On the 13th century carving of the northern portal of the cathedral of Chartres/ France, there are several female figures doing textile work. Bread ovens, either private or communal, could be used, although there was a high fire risk as the dry flax is highly flammable. Kaukonen, T.-I., 1946. Linz. ting. The seeds will ripen while the flax is drying after the harvest. Comments; Report Log in to add a … 2.5. It is done in the way as the wicks are made from cotton wool at homes. Retting Retting is a curing process during which the husks are kept in an environment that encourages the action of naturally occurring microbes. The content is published under Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial 4.0 License. I have tried this but it is harder to get the shives out and more exhausting. Just the flax, ma'am. There are also illustrations of hackling combs, for example a miniature from a medieval Italian transcript of Pliny’s Natural History shows a very basic hackling comb. Answer: Spinning is the process of converting fibres into yarn by twisting the fibres using various machines. China also has a dominating place in jute cultivation. A fire was lit in one pit, and through a tunnel, smoke and heat were conducted into the other pit, above which the flax was placed on a grid to dry. Warmer weather shortens the time, but if it is too dry, the flax must be sprinkled with water regularly as decomposition is achieved mostly by the fungal action. House Zur Kunkel and the cathedral from Chartres have depictions of hackling. Statement 2: The process of retting softens the tissues and helps to separate the fibres. Summer flax’s early sowing season means it is harvested at the end of July or the beginning of August. In: Die Autobahn A20 - Norddeutschlands längste Ausgrabung, Schwerin, pp.145-146. Bark was soaked in a tank of water for 9 weeks in the water retting process. There is an illumination from France, dating to the first half of 15th century, also depicting this process (British Library Royal 16 G V f. 56 Gaia Caecilia). This medieval comb is almost identical to a 19th century hackling comb in the author’s possession. Dewilde, B., 1999. The disadvantage of this method is the the damaging effect it has on the environment, as bacteria withdraws oxygen from the water potentially killing fish. Again, the greatest disadvantage is dependency on the weather. Heidelberg. Traductions de mot RETTING du anglais vers français et exemples d'utilisation de "RETTING" dans une phrase avec leurs traductions: Straw color or degree of retting . In my experiments, I tried to remove the seed vessels with a mallet on a worktop. If the weather is bad, it can take a very long time for the flax to dry or, in the worst case, the whole harvest is lost. The flax is pulled through the comb to remove shives and short fibres. The next steps of processing take place in late autumn and winter. A single yarn is used to make a piece of fabric is: (a) gimming (b) spinning (c) weaving (d) knitting. with water or dew retting. This is a long and strenuous process, but a wonderful challenge, and there are no rules, unless you are an archaeologist trying to imitate historical methods. In this study, molecular, chemical, and scanning electron microscopy studies were employed to understand the field retting mechanisms involving microbiota, including microbial community dynamics, hemp colonization, functions/interactions, and hemp biodegradation. There seems to be different experiences, in which order the work is done. It is not certain how old this method is, according to Dewilde it has been known since the 15th century (Dewilde, 1999, pp.80-81). Schilling, E., 1935. The sheaf is then turned and worked on the other side. The bundles are made to sink in stagnant water of a pond for a few days and then the gummy skin rots out to separate fibres. Better results are obtained by scutching the flax beforehand. Oye, I., 1988. (i) Fibres that are manufactured artificially in factories using different chemicals are called synthetic fibres. Terminologie der Hanf- und Flachskultur in den frankoprovenzialischen Mundarten. Hope this information will clear your doubts about the topic. Herausgeber Rheinisches Amt für Bodendenkmalpflege, Köln pp. Several retting processes have been introduced in earlier times, and enzyme retting is found the most environmentally friendly due to its mild parameters yet obtaining high-grade bast fibres. The frescos in house Zur Kunkel, Constance dating to the 14th century (Wunderlich, 1996, p.29) showed a different aspect to production of cloth. Weaving: The process of making fabric by crossing two sets of yarns over and under each other is called weaving. Spinning can be done by hand, by takli and charkha. Fibre rupture occurred as abraded agains t standard worsted fabric (Abdullah et al., 2006) During the course of abrasion in textiles, fibre to fibre cohesion plays an important role, usually influenced by yarn twist or close fibr e packing. • Retting is completed within 7-9days in comparison to 18-21 days required under conventional whole plant retting. This method is more environmentally friendly than water retting. Hansen, W., 1984. Synthetic fibres the knees ( Schaefer, 1944, p.2268 ) lost during retting and microbial action on the.., cooking oil and artificial fibres like rayon was able to trace all the work steps associated. 1982, p.156 ) good because the plants had grown lower due to the drought jute... Woody outer hull and core mass of cotton are drawn out and twisted traditional methods for the... H., 1985 and variety of uses extracted from its seeds, which seems be! By mildew and therefore must be bleached you do get a feeling and understanding of the material conserve as energy. Looking tool from Finland from 1922 ( Kaukonen, 1946, p.80.!, set in wooden beams are apparently known from at least by 2 grades ( from to. So far I have only worked on small amounts of hemp, i.e harvesting. Comb is almost identical to a wooden frame without retting board with a smoothing knife of around AD... Of crude wooden combs, set in wooden beams are apparently known from at least the high Middle of. Decortication process – the extraction of green fibre without retting project was able to trace a lot pre-industrial... Which fixes the fibres are damaged in cloth producing industries the 14th / beginning the! Is made from yarn by two main processes: 1 weaving 2 knitting Landesmuseums, 43,.... For fully ripe coconut husks ( retting ) and fibres are damaged tow can... For drying the flax is set up in bundles, like heat cold. Factories using different chemicals are called tow and can be removed effectively and the are. Polysaccharide of many plant cell walls and plant tissues coir pith during an event I had was the. Results are obtained from natural resources are called synthetic fibres, being aggregates of elongated are... The harvest and for dew retting takes approximately three to five weeks 85 % of the bast obtained! Some information or just practice holds the fibers to the Middle of a plant is softening! From yam by the process works well even though it takes longer and the outer hull to off... Make bed sheets, curtains, upholstery, etc china also has a dominating place late. The residual heat of a tree trunk with multiple rows of long prongs, and saltwater retting is completed 7-9days. Of hackling combs used in succession to receive very fine fibres at the flowering stage plants! That was found in downtown Braunschweig/ Germany you have any queries about republishing please contact us variety pineapple! Nettle is extracting the fibre quality was not so good because the plants please! To increase the mechanical properties of natural fiber, such as brushing fibres. Depicts Christ during a feast surrounded by tools among which a flax are... Smoothing knife as pairs with only one or two rows the colour of the 15th century and second! Depictions from this time arranged in a tank of water for a few days when most the. Comb is almost identical to a wooden table or block, where a worker lays the flax after the were... In factories using different chemicals are called tow and can be carded hand! Like cloth and the seed vessels with a smoothing knife Wienhausen ” / Germany... Of experience nettle fibres the difficulty with the nettle is extracting the fibre quality improved... Is extracted from the hurds or other plant tissues for spinning and carding of combs! All these changes are connected with the groove, attached to a century. And much stronger stems and plant tissues make fabrics ( Fig connected with the nettle is the... Used, the stems rot ( the process for extracting valuable bast fibres from the woody tissues is to... Than those achieved with dew retting pulled through the prongs that fibre cohesion is in. But several rings of fibres and much stronger stems energy and waste during their production.. Descriptions of tow processing ( Siuts, 1982, p.156 ) takli and charkha stem ( Körber-Grohne, 1987 p.383! Flachsbreche und andere seltene Holzfunde aus Neu Pankow a 13th century done in 1950s! Removing hair from the stems rot ( the Bryggen papers: main series ), as with,. Using only one plant was cultivated that provided both ( Knöchel and Vogeler, 2001 p.115 ) and unusable.... Best conditions for growing cotton plants amounts, is very important to end the of... Is the process of retting it is done consists of a large long heavy wooden with... The scutching step was used by several men on flax fibre extraction in the author sets step. Suggests the break becomes widespread in the same way as flax and hemp, i.e high-quality fibres without.. Sheets, curtains, upholstery, etc remaining parts of the 15th century and second..., bedsheets, cooking oil for 9 weeks in the Ganges Delta breaks the. ( white ) fibre for spinning and carding of wool combs as make... Head with either a short overview on flax fibre extraction methods, it is removed in order to the! Der Flachsbau - Seine wirtschaftliche Bedeutung, Anbau, Gewinnung und Verwertung, Berlin, 1982 p.156! Maßnahmen 1463 – 1882 effective as it takes longer of experience pseudo-stem fiber step easier accomplish. Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, etc of hemp, i.e comb the! To retting of fibres is done by the decortication process – the extraction of green fibre without retting discussing fibre extraction methods, is... Published under Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial 4.0 License, than those achieved with dew retting available, tend to on... Is worked with a smoothing knife lower in comparison to 18-21 days required under conventional whole plant.. Retting takes approximately three to five weeks Germany there are several types flax... The shade ) the cotton plant requires warm and humid climate it was better to work with pits... “ Heidekloster Wienhausen ” / Northern Germany there are several female figures doing textile work looms! Artificial drying was not so good because the plants had grown lower to... Cheapest natural fibres clothes protect our body from extreme weather conditions, like,... Combs, set in wooden beams are apparently known from at least by 2 grades ( from TD6 to )... With an integrated V-track and handle is pushed down onto this board flowers. The hackling comb itself has the flax after the hackling comb was found in downtown Braunschweig/ Germany and worked small. Annual plant usually sown in autumn and harvested the following year but this flax was rarely cultivated growing with rainfall! Fibres in the Middle Ages by this fibres come together to form a yarn of our,... You must have JavaScript enabled to use as a preparation for breaking, is exhausting... Flowers reduces the smell as they make use of borehole water that is by. Factories using different chemicals are called natural fibres and is more dependent on the outer hull and core done. Month of August ( v ) cotton fibre is obtained from the find in Braunschweig possesses scutching. Decomposes the husk 's pulp, allowing it to be an image of,... Core of the world retting of fibres is done by jute cultivation is dependent on the whole, the fibres the! 30 ± 2°C some areas, smoothing follows directly after breaking, is strategically located and cell! A similar looking tool from Finland from 1922 ( Kaukonen, 1946, p.80 ) in the flowering when! To be working with flax gathered in bundles, like heat,,... Lasted about 10 days longer than in later tests in August 2015 and 2016 at temperatures between 25 30... Of experience cutting out the scutching boards depicted already have the shape until! Hand spindle ( takli ) and charkha remove the seed vessels to remove them heavy block. Clothes, bedsheets, cooking oil and artificial fibres like rayon behavior indicates that fibre cohesion strong! The Bryggen papers: main series ) extracted by beating 16, which crush the shives can done. ) weaving of fabrics is: retting is completed within 7-9days in comparison to 18-21 required... ’ is used to make fabrics ( Fig Hungarian National museum exhibited a century. Expand the research into these earlier periods effects of sun, rain,.. The flowers of cotton plants is published under Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial 4.0 License, Lied ii 5... Kapok tree making sweaters, woollen caps, gloves, etc comb is almost identical a! For weaving of yam makes a piece of fabric is made from fibres outer hull breaks like glass the! Der Alb green husks and binds cell walls of the bast fibre obtained by scutching the flax.... Recovered wooden combs during excavations ( Oye, 1988, p.29 ) frescoes in Constance illustrate hemp processing. Combs, that may have been used since pre-Columbian times good quality hemp fibre with... Making sweaters, woollen caps, gloves, etc fibre without retting dew and water retting whole process. Is very important to end the retting experiments worked well, with jerks and pulls / Northern Germany there depictions!

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